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文章出处:kok官网 人气:发表时间:2023-05-05 00:34
本文摘要:“The stories of these ten people capture some of the most memorable scientific events in 2018,” says Natures chief features editor, Rich Monastersky, “and they force us to confront difficult questions about who we are, where we have come f


“The stories of these ten people capture some of the most memorable scientific events in 2018,” says Natures chief features editor, Rich Monastersky, “and they force us to confront difficult questions about who we are, where we have come from, and where we are going.”《大自然》特稿版主编里奇-蒙拿斯特斯恩回应:“十大人物的故事稀释了2018年度最感人的科学事件,这些事件被迫我们思维我们到底是谁、我们从哪里来、以及我们要下落何处的难题。”Physicist Yuan Cao was only 21 when he helped discover a trick to make graphene capable of conducting electricity without resistance, launching a new area of physics.中国物理学家曹原帮助找到了让石墨烯构建超导的方法,当时他年仅21岁。该研究成果首创了物理学一个全新的研究领域。

Cao admits that his situation is unusual, but says he isn’t special. After all, he did spend a full four years at university: “I just skipped some of the boring stuff in middle school.”曹原否认自己的情况并不少见,但说自己并不尤其。却是,他在大学里还是待满了四年,“我只是跳过了中学阶段较为无趣的时期。”Cao loves to take things apart and rebuild them. At heart, he is “a tinkerer”, his supervisor says.他的导师说道,曹原在内心深处是个修复匠,讨厌把东西拆下重装。

“Every time I go in, it’s a huge mess, with computers taken apart and pieces of telescope all over his desk.”他说道:“每次我入他的办公室,里面都乱糟糟的,桌上塞满了计算机和制做望远镜的零件。”Despite his youth and shy manner, colleagues say that Cao’s maturity shines through in his persistence.尽管年长又喜欢,同事们都说道曹原的成熟期展现出在坚持不懈上。


“He wasn’t happy, but he just rolled up his sleeves and continued working,”他的导师说道:他不快乐,但他只是刮袖子之后腊了。“There are so many things we can do,” says Cory Dean, a physicist at Columbia University in New York City. “The opportunities at hand now are almost overwhelming.”我们能做到的事情过于多了。

坐落于纽约的哥伦比亚大学物理学家克里·迪恩说,手边的各种机遇都有点应接不暇了。Palaeogeneticist Viviane Slon helped make one of 2018’s most surprising discoveries when she and her colleagues sequenced DNA from a 90,000-year-old bone and found that it came from the offspring of a union between a Neanderthal mother and a father from the extinct human group known as Denisovans.古代遗传学家薇薇安·斯隆与同事在对一个9万年前的骨骼展开DNA测序时,找到该骨骼来自于尼安德特人母亲与早已绝种的丹尼索瓦人父亲的后代。这也是2018年度最出人意料的找到之一。

Another physicist, Jess Wade, made news through her remarkable efforts to raise the profile of women and people of color in science, including by writing hundreds of Wikipedia entries for female scientists.物理学家杰斯·维德为提升女性和有色人种在科学界的地位代价了极大希望,还包括为女性科学家创立数百条维基百科词条。Robert-Jan Smits made waves in publishing by launching Plan S, a bold effort to make more scientific papers open access.罗伯特·珍·史密斯发动的“S计划”是一项前进科研论文对外开放提供的大胆倡议,引发了科学出版业的巨浪。

Open data was also central to the work of Barbara Rae-Venter, who used public genome data to help identify the Golden State killer, who committed multiple murders in California during the 1970s and 1980s.此外,对外开放数据也是芭芭拉·李-温特的工作焦点,她通过公开发表的基因组数据,帮助警方被捕了曾在上世纪七八十年代犯有数起凶杀案的“金州刺客”。Another data set preoccupied astronomer Anthony Brown, whose team coordinated the release of a massive trove of information from the Gaia spacecraft, which has tracked more than a billion stars.另一位潜心研究数据集的天文学家安东尼·布朗带领团队,公布了盖亚探测器对10亿多颗恒星的大规模跟踪数据。Meanwhile, Makoto Yoshikawa led the Hayabusa2 mission at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to visit a dumpling-shaped asteroid to collect samples and then return them to Earth.与此同时,由日本宇宙航空研究研发机构的吉川真为领导的“隼鸟2号”任务,拜访了一颗形状类似于饺子的小行星(Ryugu“龙宫”),并打算将收集的样本送回地球。


Climate researcher Valérie Masson-Delmotte had a key role in the stark report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which warned that nations might have only a dozen years before Earth’s temperature reaches a point that would transform ecosystems and destroy many coral reefs.气候研究专家瓦莱丽·马松-德尔莫特在政府间气候变化专门委员会公布的最重要报告中起着了关键作用。该报告警告称之为,距离地球气温超过改变生态系统、毁坏大量珊瑚礁的程度只只剩十几年的时间。Bee Yin Yeo, Malaysia’s minister of energy, science, technology, environment and climate change, is featured for leading environmental efforts to reduce single-use plastics.马来西亚能源、科学、技术、环境及气候变化部长杨美盈坚决提倡了增加重复使用塑料用于的环保行动。

Chinese scientist He Jiankui captured global attention last month when he announced he had edited the genomes of twin baby girls. This drew widespread condemnation over concerns that he had ignored ethical considerations and exposed the infants to potential risks.中国科学家贺建奎上个月宣告编辑了一对双胞胎女婴的基因组,引起全球注目。他的作法受到了广泛抨击,人们指责其漠视伦理,并将双胞胎女婴置放潜在风险之中。

He, who is now not speaking to the press, disappeared from the world stage as quickly as he had emerged.贺建奎现在已不出媒体倾听。他在世界舞台上匆匆登场,又匆匆消失。